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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviations for continuous variables

From: Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

  Metabolic syndrome DM Dyslipidemia Hypertension
Characteristics Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease
N, subjects 737 6433 465 7650 3582 4533 3141 4974
(male, female) (539, 198) (2915, 3518) (284, 181) (3555, 4095) (1708, 1874) (2131, 2402) (1613, 1528) (2226, 2748)
Age 58.6 ± 11.7 52.7 ± 15.3*** 65.4 ± 11.9 55.9 ± 16.8*** 60.2 ± 14.4 53.5 ± 17.7*** 65.1 ± 13.0 51.0 ± 16.4***
BMI (kg/m2) 26.9 ± 3.1 22.3 ± 3.1*** 24.2 ± 3.8 22.7 ± 3.3*** 23.6 ± 3.3 22.1 ± 3.3*** 23.7 ± 3.5 22.1 ± 3.2***
Waist (cm) 93.5 ± 6.6 79.7 ± 8.6*** 86.7 ± 9.5 80.8 ± 9.3*** 84.3 ± 8.7 78.7 ± 9.2*** 85.0 ± 9.1 79.1 ± 8.9***
FPG (mg/dL) 114 ± 34 95 ± 13*** 136 ± 45 94 ± 10*** 99 ± 20 95 ± 15*** 101 ± 21 94 ± 15***
HbA1c (%) 6.3 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 0.5*** 7.3 ± 1.3 5.6 ± 0.4*** 5.9 ± 0.8 5.6 ± 0.5*** 5.9 ± 0.8 5.6 ± 0.6***
TG (mg/dL) 170 ± 102 93 ± 61*** 128 ± 101 98 ± 65*** 133 ± 86 74 ± 28*** 113 ± 76 92 ± 60***
HDL-C (mg/dL) 54 ± 15 66 ± 17*** 58 ± 16 65 ± 17*** 59 ± 16 69 ± 16*** 62 ± 16 66 ± 17***
LDL-C (mg/dL) 125 ± 32 121 ± 31*** 119 ± 32 120 ± 30 137 ± 33 107 ± 20*** 121 ± 30 120 ± 31
SBP (mmHg) 140 ± 15 125 ± 16*** 135 ± 18 127 ± 17*** 131 ± 17 124 ± 16*** 141 ± 16 119 ± 11***
DBP (mmHg) 87 ± 10 77 ± 11*** 79 ± 12 78 ± 11** 79 ± 11 76 ± 11*** 84 ± 12 73 ± 9***
  1. BMI body mass index, FPG Free plasma glucose, HbA1c haemoglobin A1c, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure
  2. Differences in the total number of total subjects for different diseases are due to varying missing data
  3. Statistical differences between disease and non-disease subjects are shown as **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001, respectively