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Table 4 Univariate associations between basic characteristics and PUFA levels in maternal and cord blood erythrocyte (Categorical data)

From: Determinants of polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in erythrocytes of pregnant Japanese women from a birth cohort study: study protocol and baseline findings of an adjunct study of the Japan environment & Children’s study

Variables Maternal blood Cord blood
n DHA EPA ARA n DHA EPA ARA
Maternal education
  < 13   819 7.3 (3.2–11.0) 0.67 (0.11–2.96) 11.7 (7.3–14.5) 770 6.8 (3.3–10.5) 0.28 (0.02–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–19.9)
  ≥ 13   707 7.6 (4.1–10.7) 0.80 (0.16–4.10) 11.5 (6.6–16.2) 660 6.9 (3.1–10.7) 0.31 (0.03–2.30) 15.4 (9.7–20.0)
 p    <.0001 <.0001 0.060   0.13 <.0001 0.11
Household income (million Japanese Yen)
  < 2   105 7.3 (4.3–10.3) 0.68 (0.25–2.05) 11.6 (8.1–14.0) 97 6.8 (3.9–9.5) 0.29 (0.08–2.30) 15.5 (9.0–19.9)
 2 to <4   592 7.3 (3.2–11.0) 0.68 (0.14–3.00) 11.7 (7.3–14.6) 556 6.8 (3.1–10.5) 0.27 (0.03–2.54) 15.5 (10.9–20.0)
 4 to <6   395 7.4 (3.9–10.5) 0.74 (0.11–2.40) 11.6 (6.9–14.1) 364 6.8 (3.4–10.7) 0.30 (0.02–2.04) 15.5 (9.7–18.4)
 6 to <8   171 7.7 (4.4–10.7) 0.80 (0.29–4.10) 11.5 (8.3–16.2) 160 7.0 (3.9–9.8) 0.33 (0.07–1.71) 15.4 (10.9–18.7)
  ≥ 8   133 7.7 (4.8–10.1) 0.87 (0.31–3.44) 11.4 (7.1–14.5) 126 6.9 (3.3–9.1) 0.31 (0.08–1.38) 15.3 (10.7–19.6)
 p    0.0005 <.0001 0.14   0.67 0.0004 0.33
Living together with parents
 Yes   661 7.5 (3.2–11.0) 0.75 (0.16–3.44) 11.6 (7.1–14.3) 629 6.8 (3.3–10.7) 0.29 (0.03–2.54) 15.4 (9.7–20.0)
 No   883 7.4 (3.9–10.9) 0.70 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 811 6.8 (3.1–10.5) 0.29 (0.02–2.30) 15.5 (9.0–19.9)
 p    0.11 0.081 0.28   0.81 0.082 0.074
Smoking habits
 Never smoked   698 7.5 (3.9–11.0) 0.75 (0.24–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 654 6.8 (3.1–10.5) 0.29 (0.05–2.54) 15.4 (9.0–19.6)
 Ex-smokers who quit before pregnancy   378 7.5 (4.3–10.3) 0.75 (0.11–2.88) 11.5 (7.2–14.3) 355 6.9 (3.3–9.4) 0.30 (0.02–1.60) 15.4 (9.7–18.6)
 Ex-smokers who quit after pregnancy   330 7.2 (3.2–10.8) 0.67 (0.14–2.16) 11.6 (7.3–14.5) 303 6.8 (3.4–10.7) 0.26 (0.03–1.69) 15.5 (9.7–20.0)
 Smokers during early pregnancy   137 7.1 (4.4–10.5) 0.68 (0.21–3.00) 11.7 (6.9–14.0) 126 6.8 (4.4–10.5) 0.27 (0.07–0.87) 15.5 (11.6–19.9)
 p    <.0001 0.0010 0.16   0.75 0.0045 0.38
Passive smoking
 Yes   1075 7.3 (3.2–10.9) 0.70 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 1008 6.8 (3.1–10.5) 0.28 (0.02–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–20.0)
 No   470 7.6 (3.9–11.0) 0.79 (0.25–2.68) 11.6 (7.2–14.6) 432 6.8 (3.3–10.7) 0.31 (0.05–1.38) 15.4 (10.2–18.6)
 p    <.0001 <.0001 0.19   0.45 0.0014 0.11
Alcohol consumption
 Yes   29 7.6 (4.3–9.3) 0.75 (0.42–1.69) 11.2 (9.6–13.1) 26 7.0 (4.0–8.6) 0.27 (0.13–0.64) 15.3 (10.2–18.1)
 No   1498 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.73 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 1405 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.29 (0.02–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–20.0)
 p    0.78 0.50 0.12   0.91 0.87 0.72
Parity
 Primipara   574 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.72 (0.16–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–14.1) 525 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.30 (0.03–2.30) 15.4 (9.7–20.0)
 Multipara   947 8.2 (3.9–10.7) 0.73 (0.11–3.44) 11.6 (6.9–16.2) 893 6.8 (3.3–10.5) 0.29 (0.02–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–19.9)
 p    0.62 0.88 0.87   0.13 0.23 0.037
Supplemental use
 Any kind Yes 523 7.5 (4.1–10.9) 0.75 (0.14–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–14.4) 474 6.8 (3.3–10.1) 0.30 (0.02–1.69) 15.5 (10.7–18.6)
  No 1006 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.72 (0.11–2.96) 11.6 (6.9–16.2) 959 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.29 (0.03–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–20.0)
 p    0.012 0.042 0.27   0.44 0.60 0.37
 EPA and/or DHA Yes 43 7.3 (4.9–10.1) 0.74 (0.25–1.95) 11.6 (9.4–14.4) 37 6.9 (5.4–8.7) 0.30 (0.13–0.55) 15.5 (12.6–18.3)
  No 1485 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.73 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 1395 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.29 (0.02–2.54) 15.4 (9.0–20.0)
 p    0.87   0.72 0.91 0.95 0.93 0.38
Breakfast skipper
 Skipper   235 7.3 (4.3–10.5) 0.70 (0.25–2.96) 11.7 (8.3–14.0) 222 6.8 (3.4–9.2) 0.29 (0.08–1.69) 15.7 (9.7–20.0)
 Eater   1289 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.73 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 1206 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.29 (0.02–2.54) 15.4 (9.0–19.6)
 p    0.028 0.18 0.40   0.97 0.65 0.010
Housewife
 Yes   771 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.70 (0.11–4.10) 11.7 (7.2–14.6) 717 6.8 (3.3–10.7) 0.28 (0.03–2.54) 15.5 (9.0–20.0)
 Yes   752 7.4 (4.1–10.9) 0.76 (0.16–3.44) 11.6 (6.6–16.2) 710 6.8 (3.1–10.5) 0.30 (0.02–2.04) 15.4 (9.7–19.6)
 p    0.17 0.0001 0.41   0.53 0.10 0.15
Sex of child
 Male   794 7.4 (3.2–10.8) 0.74 (0.14–3.44) 11.6 (6.6–14.6) 735 6.9 (3.1–10.5) 0.29 (0.05–2.54) 15.2 (9.7–20.0)
 Female   749 7.4 (3.6–11.0) 0.70 (0.11–4.10) 11.6 (6.9–16.2) 707 6.7 (3.3–10.7) 0.29 (0.02–1.71) 15.8 (9.0–19.9)
 p    0.045 0.0047 0.24   0.0002 0.49 <.0001
Type of delivery
 Transvaginal   1318 7.4 (3.2–11.0) 0.72 (0.11–3.44) 11.6 (6.6–14.5) 1243 6.8 (3.1–10.7) 0.29 (0.02–2.54) 15.4 (9.0–20.0)
 Caesarean   226 7.5 (4.6–10.7 0.76 (0.14–4.10) 11.6 (7.9–16.2) 199 6.6 (3.9–9.8) 0.31 (0.07–1.36) 15.7 (10.9–19.9)
 p    0.36 0.16 0.81   0.012 0.09 0.016
Season at blood collection
 Spring   357 7.3 (3.6–10.5) 0.67 (0.16–2.16) 11.6 (8.8–14.1) - - - -
 Summer   442 7.4 (4.4–10.9) 0.69 (0.14–2.70) 11.6 (7.1–14.2) - - - -
 Autumn   373 7.4 (3.2–10.8) 0.77 (0.11–4.10) 11.7 (6.6–14.3) - - - -
 Winter   355 7.5 (3.9–11.0) 0.76 (0.23–2.68) 11.5 (6.9–16.2) - - - -
 p    0.046 0.046 0.046 - - - -
Season at delivery
 Spring   - - - - 355 6.7 (4.0–9.8) 0.28 (0.08–1.13) 15.5 (10.5–20.0)
 Summer   - - - - 328 6.8 (4.0–9.2) 0.26 (0.02–2.04) 15.4 (11.9–19.9)
 Autumn   - - - - 404 7.0 (3.1–10.7) 0.33 (0.04–2.54) 15.6 (9.0–19.6)
 Winter   - - - - 355 6.9 (3.3–10.5) 0.30 (0.05–1.15) 15.4 (10.7–18.6)
 p        0.10 <.0001 0.98
  1. Median (min-max)
  2. Compared with ANOVA
  3. EPA was analyzed after log-transformation