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Table 3 Cox Proportional Hazard Ratios (HRs) of Mortality Because of Selected Sites of Cancer and Subgroups of Cardiovascular Disease, the Ohsaki Cohort, Japan, 1995–2008

From: Age at first birth and long-term mortality for mothers: the Ohsaki cohort study

  Age at first birth (years)
  ≤19 20–24 25–29 ≥30
  (n = 498) (n = 13,607) (n = 5,625) (n = 894)
Cancer
 Gastric cancer
  No. of deaths 7 57 20 3
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) 2.82 (1.19–6.68) 1.00 (referent) 0.93 (0.55–1.56) 0.8 (0.23–2.75)
   p-value 0.02   0.77 0.72
 Lung cancer
  No. of deaths 1 43 21 6
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) 0.54 (0.07–3.99) 1.00 (referent) 1.09 (0.63–1.87) 2.17 (0.86–5.47)
   p-value 0.55   0.76 0.10
 Colorectal cancer
  No. of deaths 1 49 29 6
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) 0.54 (0.07–3.95) 1.00 (referent) 1.36 (0.84–2.21) 1.65 (0.65–4.16)
   p-value 0.54   0.22 0.29
 Breast cancer
  No. of deaths 0 7 8 2
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) - 1.00 (referent) 3.28 (1.06–10.14) 5.78 (0.91–36.88)
   p-value 1.00   0.04 0.06
 Ovarian cancer
  No. of deaths 0 15 4 1
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) - 1.00 (referent) 0.53 (0.17–1.66) 1.31 (0.16–10.48)
   p-value 1.00   0.28 0.80
 Uterine cancer
  No. of deaths 0 10 4 1
  Multivariate HRa (95% CI) - 1.00 (referent) 0.92 (0.27–3.12) 2.20 (0.23–21.37)
   p-value 0.99   0.90 0.50
CVD
 Coronary heart disease
  No. of deaths 6 93 41 7
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.07 (0.43–2.69) 1.00 (referent) 0.94 (0.64–1.38) 0.97 (0.43–2.18)
   p-value 0.88   0.74 0.93
 Stroke
  No. of deaths 15 235 93 19
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.30 (0.77–2.22) 1.00 (referent) 0.92 (0.72–1.19) 1.24 (0.75–2.04)
   p-value 0.33   0.53 0.40
 Cerebral infarction
  No. of deaths 8 97 38 6
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.45 (0.69–3.05) 1.00 (referent) 0.85 (0.57–1.27) 0.72 (0.30–1.72)
   p-value 0.33   0.43 0.46
 Cerebral hemorrhage
  No. of deaths 3 46 25 7
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.45 (0.44–4.75) 1.00 (referent) 1.39 (0.84–2.31) 2.65 (1.12–6.25)
   p-value 0.54   0.20 0.03
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  No. of deaths 1 62 21 3
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 0.39 (0.05–2.86) 1.00 (referent) 0.89 (0.53–1.49) 1.15 (0.35–3.80)
   p-value 0.36   0.65 0.82
Other
 Pneumonia
  No. of deaths 7 92 51 10
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.36 (0.58–3.15) 1.00 (referent) 1.41 (0.98–2.03) 1.87 (0.92–3.81)
   p-value 0.48   0.06 0.09
 External causes
  No. of deaths 2 28 16 2
  Multivariate HRa(95% CI) 1.61 (0.37–6.94) 1.00 (referent) 1.37 (0.71–2.65) 1.13 (0.25–5.21)
   p-value 0.53   0.35 0.87
  1. Note. CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, HR hazard ratio
  2. a The multivariate HR has been adjusted for age at baseline (continuous variable), number of births (1, 2, 3, or ≥4), use of oral contraceptives (yes or no), consumption of green vegetables, carrot or pumpkin, orange (for each food, ≤1–2 times per month, 1–2 times per week, 3–4 times per week, or almost every day), consumption of coffee (<1, 1–2, 3–4, or ≥5 cups per day), smoking status (never, former, or currently smoking), alcohol drinking (never, former, or currently drinking), body mass index at baseline in kg/m2 (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, or ≥25.0), increase in body weight since age 20 years (<10.0 or ≥10.0 kg), walking duration (<1 or ≥1 h per day), sleeping time in hours per day (continuous variable), defecation frequency (≥1 time per day, 1 time per 2–3 days, 1 time per 4–5 days or ≤1 time per 6 days), years of education (<10, 10–12, or ≥13 years), ikigai (yes, uncertain, or no) perceived mental stress (high, moderate, or low), and history of diabetes (yes or no)