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Table 3 Multivariate OR and 95% CI of higher SPSI-R and subscales according to physical activity

From: Attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students

  Physical activity P value for linear trend
Do not exercise Exercise but not regularly Exercise regularly
And never think about doing so But intend to start Try to exercise
No. of subjects 20 43 55 35 32  
SPSI-R       
No. of subjects with higher SPSI-R 6 20 23 20 24  
 Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 2.03 (0.68–6.65) 1.68 (0.58–5.34) 3.11 (1.00–10.60) 7.00 (2.11–26.13) < 0.01
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 2.08 (0.69–6.93) 1.62 (0.55–5.26) 2.78 (0.86–9.77) 6.23 (1.81–23.97) < 0.01
PPO
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.04 (0.35–3.02) 0.90 (0.32–2.53) 0.87 (0.28–2.68) 1.50 (0.47–4.81) 0.58
NPO
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.74 (0.22–2.28) 0.66 (0.20–1.94) 0.42 (0.12–1.34) 0.27 (0.07–0.88) 0.01
RPS
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.71 (0.24–2.08) 0.93 (0.33–2.64) 0.79 (0.25–2.45) 2.37 (0.73–8.00) 0.10
PDF
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.25 (0.43–3.66) 1.18 (0.42–3.33) 0.73 (0.23–2.26) 1.83 (0.57–5.97) 0.64
GAS
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.18 (0.40–3.49) 0.94 (0.33–2.70) 1.37 (0.44–4.35) 2.66 (0.80–9.16) 0.10
DM
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.01 (0.33–3.13) 1.00 (0.34–3.01) 3.34 (1.03–11.47) 3.67 (1.10–13.10) < 0.01
SIV
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.46 (0.15–1.34) 0.74 (0.24–2.12) 0.82 (0.25–2.59) 1.61 (0.46–5.64) 0.12
ICS
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.38 (0.45–4.16) 0.94 (0.32–2.68) 0.58 (0.18–1.81) 0.48 (0.14–1.51) 0.04
AS
 Multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.70 (0.22–2.08) 0.60 (0.20–1.70) 0.53 (0.16–1.66) 0.35 (0.10–1.11) 0.07
  1. Abbreviations: AS avoidance style, CI confidence interval, DM decision making, GAS generation of alternative solutions, ICS impulsivity/carelessness style, NPO negative problem orientation, OR odds ratio, PDF problem definition and formulation, PPO positive problem orientation, RPS rational problem solving, SIV solution implementation and verification, and SPSI-R Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised
  2. The outcomes were higher for SPSI-R, PPO, NPO, RPS, PDF, GAS, DM, SIV, ICS, and AS
  3. Multivariate ORs were adjusted for age in years (continuous variable), sex (men or women), and living alone (yes or no)
  4. The p value for the linear trend was estimated using the five categories of physical activity as a continuous variable