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Table 3 Generalized estimated equation (GEE) multivariable model of factors associated with prevalence of dental fluorosis (n = 1026)

From: High prevalence of dental fluorosis among adolescents is a growing concern: a school based cross-sectional study from Southern India

Variables Category Fluorosis present Total β estimate (95%CI) P value
Age group 12–14 294(63.5%) 463 −0.105(−0.379, 0.170) 0.454
15–17 367(65.2%) 563 0
Year of residence <5 years 43(54.4%) 79 0.466 (−0.703,1.63) 0.435
5–10 years 28(73.7%) 38 −25.3(−23.12,522.28) <0.001
Since birth 590(64.9%) 909 0  
Gender Male 332 (65.2%) 509 −0.15(−0.42,0.12) 0.274
Female 329 (63.6%) 517 0
Type of school Government 554 (71.7%) 773 −1.22(−1.53,-0.91) <0.001
Aided 108 (42. 7%) 253 0
Ragi consumption Yes 634 (64.3%) 986 0.241(−0.48,0.96) 0.509
No 28(70.0%) 40 0
Drinking water source Bore well water 551 (63.7%) 865 0.92(−0.32,2.16) 0.145
Pipe/tape water 79 (64.8%) 122 0
Year of residence b Water sourcea 1b1    −0.464(0.82, 0.501) 0.479
1b2    0  
2b1    24.85(22.52,27.12) <0.001
2b2    0  
2b3    0  
3b1    0  
  1. Dependent variable- Presence of fluorosis in the participant (Binary variable)
  2. aInteraction variable- Year of residence bWater source
  3. Goodness of fit-Quasi Likelihood under Independence Model Criterion (QIC)- 1283.32
  4. P value less than 0.05 considered statistically significant
  5. Abbreviation: Std error standard error