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Table 2 Relative risks a and 95% confidence intervals for daily medical consultations for pollinosis in association with exposure to AD

From: Association of Asian Dust with daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Fukuoka City, Japan

Lag period for AD AD only
(Single-pollutant model)
AD with SPM b
(Bi-pollutant model)
RR c 95% CI RR c 95% CI P-value for AD × SPM
Clinic I (n = 18571)
 Lag 0 1.215 1.003 1.472 1.383 1.046 1.828 0.43
 Lag 1 1.353 1.116 1.640 1.814 1.348 2.442 0.05
 Lag 2 1.284 1.053 1.566 1.850 1.361 2.516 0.01
 Lag 3 1.362 1.130 1.642 1.628 1.201 2.206 0.31
 Lag 4 1.404 1.160 1.700 1.897 1.406 2.559 0.05
 Lag 5 1.211 0.991 1.479 1.707 1.250 2.331 0.01
 Lag 6 1.315 1.078 1.605 1.814 1.353 2.433 >0.01
 Lags 0–5 1.241 1.095 1.407 1.440 1.175 1.766 0.31
Clinic II (n =14741)
 Lag 0 1.344 1.316 1.373 1.107 0.863 1.421 0.70
 Lag 1 0.948 0.779 1.155 1.022 0.762 1.370 0.93
 Lag 2 0.925 0.765 1.118 1.011 0.759 1.346 0.67
 Lag 3 1.080 0.905 1.288 1.222 0.917 1.629 0.57
 Lag 4 1.082 0.905 1.293 1.207 0.908 1.605 0.57
 Lag 5 1.067 0.889 1.280 1.122 0.851 1.479 0.77
 Lag 6 0.890 0.739 1.072 1.001 0.770 1.301 0.21
 Lags 0–5 1.029 0.919 1.152 1.120 0.933 1.345 0.62
Clinic III (n = 26186)
 Lag 0 1.177 0.993 1.394 1.119 0.879 1.426 0.37
 Lag 1 1.126 0.944 1.344 1.049 0.804 1.370 0.37
 Lag 2 1.214 1.019 1.445 1.196 0.916 1.560 0.82
 Lag 3 1.276 1.079 1.509 1.273 0.971 1.669 0.75
 Lag 4 1.241 1.047 1.470 1.200 0.923 1.559 0.47
 Lag 5 1.192 1.005 1.415 1.151 0.891 1.488 0.53
 Lag 6 1.142 0.961 1.358 1.179 0.922 1.509 0.78
 Lags 0–5 1.147 1.025 1.283 1.167 0.975 1.397 0.90
Clinic IV (n = 5990)
 Lag 0 1.506 1.101 2.060 1.442 0.891 2.332 0.83
 Lag 1 1.734 1.288 2.334 2.177 1.342 3.533 0.25
 Lag 2 1.769 1.286 2.434 2.299 1.384 3.820 0.16
 Lag 3 1.668 1.216 2.288 1.820 1.090 3.038 0.58
 Lag 4 1.761 1.275 2.430 1.646 1.002 2.706 0.80
 Lag 5 1.181 0.851 1.639 1.244 0.748 2.069 0.76
 Lag 6 1.364 0.980 1.899 1.655 0.999 2.741 0.27
 Lags 0–5 1.594 1.283 1.980 2.024 1.408 2.910 0.07
Pooled estimates
 Lag 0 1.175 1.061 1.301 1.203 1.045 1.385 -
 Lag 1 1.238 0.976 1.570 1.395 0.970 2.006 -
 Lag 2 1.238 0.972 1.576 1.456 1.021 2.075 -
 Lag 3 1.290 1.111 1.497 1.391 1.184 1.634 -
 Lag 4 1.309 1.099 1.559 1.427 1.122 1.816 -
 Lag 5 1.156 1.045 1.279 1.278 1.039 1.572 -
 Lag 6 1.142 0.943 1.383 1.337 1.006 1.777 -
 Lags 0–5 1.215 1.031 1.431 1.348 1.075 1.690 -
  1. AD Asian dust, SPM suspended particulate matter, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval
  2. aUsing single-lag model with adjustment for the day of the week, public holidays, month, year, pollen (average lag 0–5), interaction between AD-pollen and the natural cubic splines of daily mean temperature and relative humidity with 3° of freedom
  3. bAdditional adjustment for SPM (average lags 0–5) and the corresponding interaction between AD-SPM; refer to Additional file 1: Table S1 for further information
  4. cReference: AD-free days