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Table 1 The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) according to colon doses and selected cancers: Hiroshima, both sexes, age 0–34 years at time of bomb, 1971–1990

From: Hiroshima survivors exposed to very low doses of A-bomb primary radiation showed a high risk for cancers

Cause of death Dose categories (Sv)
<0.005 (very low) 0.005–0.1 (low) 0.1 (high) Total
Oa Eb SMRc (95% CI) P valued Oa Eb SMRc (95% CI) P valued Oa Eb SMRc (95% CI) P valued Oa Eb SMRc (95% CI) P valued
Males
 All deaths 682 571.5 1.193 (1.107–1.285) 0.000 715 651.5 1.097 (1.020–1.179) 0.013 403 324.1 1.243 (1.128–1.368) 0.000 1,800 1547.1 1.163 (1.111–1.218) 0.000
 All cancers 242 195.0 1.241 (1.094–1.402) 0.001 263 220.6 1.192 (1.057–1.341) 0.004 161 110.5 1.456 (1.249–1.690) 0.000 666 526.1 1.266 (1.173–1.364) 0.000
 Leukemia 16 5.1 3.150 (1.950–4.871) 0.000 9 5.9 1.538 (0.820–2.694) 0.274 9 2.9 3.069 (1.635–5.376) 0.001 34 13.9 2.453 (1.759–3.343) 0.000
 Solid cancers 218 184.6 1.181 (1.035–1.343) 0.014 250 208.6 1.198 (1.059–1.351) 0.004 147 104.6 1.406 (1.196–1.642) 0.000 615 497.7 1.236 (1.142–1.335) 0.000
 Stomach 65 55.4 1.174 (0.922–1.476) 0.195 73 62.6 1.167 (0.929–1.449) 0.187 33 31.5 1.049 (0.749–1.436) 0.852 171 149.4 1.145 (0.986–1.323) 0.077
 Colon 12 9.0 1.334 (0.769–2.187) 0.404 12 10.3 1.170 (0.675–1.919) 0.698 9 5.1 1.757 (0.936–3.078) 0.136 33 24.4 1.354 (0.966–1.853) 0.100
 Liver 55 31.7 1.733 (1.333–2.219) 0.000 61 36.3 1.679 (1.308–2.125) 0.000 48 17.8 2.692 (2.033–3.506) 0.000 164 85.9 1.909 (1.639–2.212) 0.000
 Lung 30 29.9 1.005 (0.705–1.395) 0.948 38 33.4 1.138 (0.831–1.527) 0.477 15 16.9 0.886 (0.540–1.387) 0.728 83 80.2 1.035 (0.836–1.269) 0.753
Females
  All deaths 701 651.7 1.076 (0.999–1.157) 0.054 745 733.2 1.016 (0.946–1.090) 0.662 519 409.1 1.269 (1.164–1.380) 0.000 1,965 1794.0 1.095 (1.048–1.144) 0.000
  All cancers 244 234.8 1.039 (0.917–1.173) 0.550 286 261.1 1.095 (0.976–1.226) 0.124 241 146.6 1.644 (1.449–1.858) 0.000 771 642.6 1.200 (1.118–1.286) 0.000
  Leukemia 6 7.0 0.858 (0.402–1.668) 0.851 6 7.8 0.772 (0.362–1.501) 0.648 12 4.4 2.755 (1.589–4.519) 0.001 24 19.1 1.255 (0.846–1.805) 0.317
  Solid cancers 228 220.3 1.035 (0.909–1.174) 0.602 269 244.9 1.099 (0.975–1.234) 0.123 226 137.5 1.644 (1.443–1.865) 0.000 723 602.6 1.200 (1.116–1.289) 0.000
  Stomach 43 59.9 0.718 (0.534–0.948) 0.034 56 67.1 0.834 (0.643–1.067) 0.175 57 37.6 1.518 (1.173–1.936) 0.002 156 164.6 0.948 (0.811–1.102) 0.505
  Colon 14 14.2 0.985 (0.590–1.563) 0.941 13 15.5 0.836 (0.492–1.348) 0.604 13 8.7 1.487 (0.876–2.398) 0.204 40 38.5 1.039 (0.764–1.385) 0.873
  Liver 30 15.9 1.889 (1.326–2.622) 0.001 29 17.5 1.656 (1.156–2.311) 0.009 16 9.9 1.615 (0.999–2.507) 0.076 75 43.3 1.733 (1.384–2.147) 0.000
  Lung 21 21.0 1.002 (0.658–1.474) 0.920 38 23.8 1.599 (1.167–2.146) 0.005 27 13.2 2.039 (1.405–2.878) 0.000 86 58.0 1.484 (1.202–1.813) 0.000
  Female breast 21 17.0 1.235 (0.811–1.816) 0.397 22 18.5 1.189 (0.788–1.736) 0.485 30 10.4 2.876 (2.019–3.993) 0.000 73 45.9 1.589 (1.265–1.974) 0.000
  Uterus 27 15.3 1.767 (1.218–2.493) 0.004 35 16.8 2.087 (1.503–2.833) 0.000 21 9.5 2.204 (1.447–3.241) 0.000 83 41.6 1.996 (1.611–2.448) 0.000
  1. aObserved number of deaths (person-years)
  2. bExpected number of deaths (person-years)
  3. cRisk among Hiroshima survivors in the life span study (LSS) relative to population of Hiroshima prefecture
  4. dChi-square test