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Table 4 Employment status and suicide risk

From: Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies

Author, published year (reference no.) Country No. of cases/controls Age class, proportion of male (%) Source of controls Employment status OR (95% CI)a
Lesage et al. 1994 [16]c Canada 75/75 Young, 100 Community Unemployed 1.24 (0.55–2.80)
Appleby et al. 1999 [20] UK 84/64 Young, 81 GP lists Unemployed 4.07 (1.56–11.86)
Foster et al. 1999 [21] Ireland 117/117 All, 79 GP lists (deceased) Unemployed 3.43 (1.46–8.71)
Cheng et al. 2000 [38] Taiwan 113/226 All, 62 Community Unemployed 2.22 (1.36–3.64)
Houston et al. 2001 [22]c UK 22/22 Young, 100 Hospital (DSH) Unemployed 1.00 (0.25–4.06)
Phillips et al. 2002 [35] China 519/536 All, 63 Community (deceased) Housewife, retired, or unemployed 2.33 (1.66–3.28)
Owens et al. 2003 [24] UK 100/100 All, 67 GP lists Unemployed 2.36 (1.28–4.33)
Gururaj et al. 2004 [26] India 269/269 All, 64 Community Unemployed 5.53 (2.89–11.27)
Duberstein et al. 2004 [39] US 86/86 Old, 73 Community Unemployed on disability/retired 3.15 (1.50–6.75)
Zhang et al. 2004 [25] China 66/66 All, 73 Community Unemployed 1.44 (0.64–3.29)
Chiu et al. 2004 [36] Hong Kong 70/100 Old, 44 Community No job/retired 0.44 (0.17–1.17)
Kõlves et al. 2006 [40] Germany 163/163 All, 64 Community Illicit work, retired, or unemployed 2.10 (1.30–3.42)
Kõlves et al. 2006 [29] Estonia 427/427 All, 80 GP lists (Community`) Illicit work, retired, unemployed, or other 3.10 (2.31–4.14)
Chen et al. 2006 [30] Hong Kong 150/150 All, 64 Community Unemployed 9.24 (4.81–18.45)
Harwood et al. 2006 [41] UK 54/54 Old, 68 Hospital (deceased) Problems related to occupation/retirement 9.22 (1.14–416)
Zonda et al. 2006 [31] Hungary 100/100 All, 67 Community (deceased) Unemployed/retired 1.94 (1.03–3.66)
Summaryb No. of populations
Total (both genders) 14 2,318/2,458       2.71 (2.02–3.62)
*P < 0.001
Men 3 193/193       2.80 (0.47–16.83)
*P < 0.001
Old 3 210/240       1.99 (0.39–10.23)
*P = 0.001
  1. GP general practitioner, DSH deliberate self-harm
  2. *P for heterogeneity (Cochran Q test)
  3. aCrude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval
  4. bBased on random effects model
  5. cMen only