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Table 2 Depressive (mood/affective) disorders and suicide risk

From: Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies

Author, published year (reference no.) Country No. of cases/controls Age class, proportion of male (%) Source of controls Diagnosis OR (95% CI)a Diagnostic criteria
Lesage et al. 1994 [16]c Canada 75/75 Young, 100 Community Major depression and depression NOS 15.53 (4.95–63.34) DSM-III-R
Gould et al. 1996 [17] US 120/147 Young, 79 Community Mood disorders 10.00 (4.14–27.47) DSM-III
Vijayakumar et al. 1999 [19] India 100/100 All, 55 Community Mood disorders 10.78 (3.08–57.27) DSM-III-R
Appleby et al. 1999 [20] UK 84/64 Young, 81 GP lists Major affective disorders 18.42 (2.73–777) ICD-10
Foster et al. 1999 [21] Ireland 117/117 All, 79 GP lists (deceased) Depressive disorders 8.80 (3.63–24.26) DSM-III-R
Harwood et al. 2001 [33] UK 54/54 Old, 68 Hospital (deceased) Depressive episodes 4.01 (1.68–9.68) ICD-10
Houston et al. 2001 [22]c UK 22/22 Young, 100 Hospital (DSH) Affective disorders 1.20 (0.31–4.68) ICD-10
Hawton et al. 2002 [34]d UK 42/84 All, 0 Female nurses Affective disorders 55.25 (15.95–203) ICD-10
Wærn et al. 2002 [23] Sweden 85/153 Old, 55 Community Mood disorders 66.73 (26.67–172) DSM-IV
Phillips et al. 2002 [35] China 519/536 All, 63 Community (deceased) Depressive symptoms 21.08 (14.62–30.70) DSM-IV
Owens et al. 2003 [24] UK 100/100 All, 67 GP lists Depressive disorders 49.00 (11.82–424) ICD-10
Zhang et al. 2004 [25] China 66/66 All, 73 Community Mood disorders 15.57 (5.23–54.81) DSM-III-R
Chiu et al. 2004 [36] Hong Kong 70/100 Old, 44 Community Depressive disorders 59.24 (19.31–209) DSM-III-R
Pllevile et al. 2005 [27] Canada 95/95 Old, 75 Community (deceased) Affective disorders 24.75 (9.79–69.39) DSM-IV
Schneider et al. 2005 [28] Germany 163/396 All, 58 Community Affective disorders 5.63 (3.47–9.19) DSM-IV
Chen et al. 2006 [30] Hong Kong 150/150 All, 64 Community Mood disorders 8.97 (4.61–18.26) DSM-IV
Zonda et al. 2006 [31] Hungary 100/100 All, 67 Community (deceased) Major depression 2.75 (1.35–5.69) DSM-IV
Summaryb No. of populations
Total (both genders) 14 1,823/2,178       13.42 (8.05–22.37)
*P < 0.001
 
Men 4 297/414       6.56 (2.65–16.28)
*P = 0.011
 
Women 3 155/313       12.95 (3.06–54.83)
*P = 0.001
 
Old 4 304/402       24.62 (6.43–94.20)
*P < 0.001
 
  1. GP general practitioner, DSH deliberate self-harm. NOS: not otherwise specified
  2. *P for heterogeneity (Cochran Q test)
  3. aCrude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval
  4. bBased on random effects model
  5. cMen only
  6. dWomen only