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Table 1 Substance (alcohol)-related disorders and suicide risk

From: Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies

Author, published year (reference no.) Country No. of cases/controls Age class, proportion of male (%) Source of controls Diagnosis OR (95% CI)a Diagnostic criteria
Lesage et al. 1994 [16]c Canada 75/75 Young, 100 Community Alcohol abuse and dependence 4.03 (1.51–11.94) DSM-III-R
Gould et al. 1996 [17] US 120/147 Young, 79 Community Substance disorder 4.70 (1.73–14.74) DSM-III
Brent et al. 1999 [18] US 140/131 Young, 77 Community Substance abuse 12.73 (4.79–42.28) DSM-III
Vijayakumar et al. 1999 [19] India 100/100 All, 55 Community Alcoholism and substance abuse 6.47 (2.70–17.05) DSM-III-R
Appleby et al. 1999 [20] UK 84/64 Young, 81 GP lists Any alcohol or drug misuse 10.34 (4.01–29.60) ICD-10
Foster et al. 1999 [21] Ireland 117/117 All, 79 GP lists (deceased) Psychoactive substance use disorder 5.25 (1.73–14.74) DSM-III-R
Houston et al. 2001 [22]c UK 22/22 Young, 100 Hospital (DSH) Drug/alcohol-related disorder 0.14 (0.14–0.89) ICD-10
Wærn et al. 2002 [23] Sweden 85/153 Old, 55 Community Substance use disorder 56.39 (8.64–2337) DSM-IV
Owens et al. 2003 [24] UK 100/100 All, 67 GP lists Alcohol or substance abuse 33.00 (5.10–1368) ICD-10
Zhang et al. 2004 [25] China 66/66 All, 73 Community Alcohol abuse 2.77 (0.74–12.69) DSM-III-R
Gururaj et al. 2004 [26] India 269/269 All, 64 Community History of alcohol consumption 5.48 (3.30–9.33) Original interview
Pllevile et al. 2005 [27] Canada 95/95 Old, 75 Community (deceased) Alcohol use disorder 1.88 (0.54–7.43) DSM-IV
Schneider et al. 2005 [28] Germany 163/396 All, 58 Community Substance-related disorders 3.43 (2.23–5.26) DSM-IV
Kõlves et al. 2006 [29] Estonia 411/411 All, 81 GP lists Alcohol abuse and dependence 5.70 (4.14–7.85) DSM-IV
Chen et al. 2006 [30] Hong Kong 150/150 All, 64 Community Substance abuse 17.79 (2.68–750) DSM-IV
Zonda et al. 2006 [31] Hungary 100/100 All, 67 Community (deceased) Alcohol and substance dependence/abuse 0.73 (0.40–1.31) DSM-IV
Summaryb No. of populations
Total (both genders) 14 2,000/2,152       5.24 (3.30–8.31)
*P < 0.001
 
Men 6 750/839       3.87 (1.85–8.13)
*P < 0.001
 
Women 3 157/292       8.34 (2.18–31.82)
*P = 0.119
 
Young 3 344/342       8.55 (4.76–15.37)
*P = 0.306
 
  1. GP general practitioner, DSH deliberate self-harm
  2. *P for heterogeneity (Cochran Q test)
  3. aCrude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval
  4. bBased on random effects model
  5. cMen only